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  • admin 5:26 pm on June 28, 2013 Permalink  

    Effects of Probiotic Bacillus subtilis on Intestinal Microbial Diversity and Immunity of Orange Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides 

    It is recognized that the gastrointestinal microbes of homeothermic animals serve several functions, such as digestion and development of the mucosal system, angiogenesis, and as a protection barrier against disease (Schiffrin, 2002; Stevens, 1998). The majority of these microbes are present in the digestive tract communities. They contribute to the harvest of dietary nutrients that would otherwise be inaccessible (Bached et al., 2004; Sonnenburg et al., 2005). The potential benefit of the microbes is to influence the absorption of some nutrients, such as lipids.

    Thus, the establishment of a microbe is a key component in order to health by competitive mechanisms and immune system development and maturation. By facilitating the growth of protective bacteria that will compete against the opportunistic pathogens for food and adhesions sites to intestinal membrane, they can prevent the pathogens entering the body. An important aspect is the specificity of the host response, which depends on the bacteria species colonizing the digestive tract.

    Therefore it is important to know the composition of this microbe in fish and the effects which different factors could have on it, especially in the case of fish culture with high economical interest such as E. coioides. The problem of this kind of studies is that culture techniques are laborious and less accuracy because all bacteria in the intestines only culturable bacteria that can be identified by this method. An alternative way to overcome these disadvantages in studying the composition of intestinal microbes is by molecular methods, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE).

    The intestinal microbe is an important component of mucosal barrier has resulted in the promotion of the use of beneficial probiotic (Gomes, 2008). Most of the studies with probiotic used the vegetative cells that possess the probiotic functions. The present study used endospores of B. subtilis, because endospore can be stored in long time, more stable in high temperature and pH, and resistant to feed pelletization.

    The aim of research was determined growth performance, profile of the intestinal microbes and immune responses of orange spotted grouper E. coioides when fed on three different diets supplemented with different concentrations of probiotic B. subtilis.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Anggraini Ratih Purwandari, Houng Yung Chen

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:35 pm on June 27, 2013 Permalink  

    Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soil Using Seeds as Bioindicators 

    Ecotoxicology not only detects dangerous substances, but also biological effects from such substances that may harm the environment (Lynch, 2001). Thus, ecotoxicology integrate the synergistic and antagonistic effects of all contaminants and provide information on the bioavailable fraction of the contaminants only, which would be impossible to evaluate solely with chemical data. Hence, bioassays can serve as a complementary tool in environmental risk assessment of bioremediated places (Plaza et al., 2005; Repetto et al., 2001).

    Ecotoxicity tests evaluate the effect of environmental contamination on organisms through assessment of survival, growth, reproduction and behavior. These tests help to determine whether the contaminant concentration at remediated sites is high enough to cause adverse effects on organisms (U. S. EPA, 1996).

    Plants depend strongly on soil to germinate and grow, so any alterations in the seed development may reflect the presence of toxic substances in the soil. Germination test in ecotoxicological assays are considered short-term and evaluate acute toxicity effects (Banks & Schultz, 2005). Siddiquii et al. (2001) analyzed grass germination in soil contaminated with diesel oil, demonstrating its high toxicity. Saterbak et al. (1999) recommends various seeds germination as an effective evaluation of site contamination, since such tests present a narrow variability, good sensitivity and applicability to variety of soils.

    Maila and Cloete (2002) consider Lepidium sativum germination as a potential PAHs bioindicator. On the other hand, Smith et al. (2006) report that none of the treatments with PAHs contaminated soil adversely affected germination. The findings of Lors et al. (2009) suggest a probable relationship between acute toxicity and low-molecular weight PAHs. Banks and Schultz (2005) supported using lettuce in germination toxicity assays in petroleum-contaminated soils. This seed showed sensitivity to contaminant.


    For full text: click here

    (Author: Jaqueline Matos Cruz, Paulo Renato Matos Lopes, Renato Nallin Montagnolli, Ivo Shodji Tamada, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra Silva, Ederio Dino Bidoia

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:34 pm on June 26, 2013 Permalink  

    Effect of Exogenous Phytase on the Phosphorus Balance of Lactating Cows Fed A Corn Based Diet 

    The present study investigated the effect of P or phytase supplementation on the P-balance of dairy cows. 24 lactating German Holstein cows were used for a 5-weeks feeding trial and were allocated to three dietary treatments, P+MIN, P-MIN and P+PHY. All cows received a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of 63% corn silage and 37% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for ad libitum intake. The concentrate of the P+MIN group was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate and represents the control group. The concentrate of the P-MIN group was unsupplemented and the concentrate of the P+PHY group was supplemented with an exogenous phytase (0.1 g/kg DM in the TMR; 50 000 FTU/g). The P concentration in the TMR of the P+MIN, P-MIN and P+PHY groups were 3.98, 3.46 and 3.26 g P/kg DM, respectively.

    Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. In the last two weeks samples of milk, urine and blood were collected. Samples of faeces were collected to determine the P-balances by using the acid insoluble ash (AIA) marker technique.

    No differences in P-concentration of milk, urine and faeces were observed between the treatments. The P-digestibility of Group P+MIN and P-MIN was 60 and 56%, respectively. These values were not different compared to the P-digestibility of 57% in the P+PHY-group. The P-balance in the P+MIN group (26 g/d) was higher compared to the P-MIN (16g/d) and P+PHY (17g/d) treatment. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility and P-balance of dairy cows in this trial.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Laura Winter, Ulrich Meyer, Markus Spolders, Liane Hüther, Peter Lebzien, Sven Dänicke

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:58 pm on June 25, 2013 Permalink  

    Role of Bovine Bcl2A1 Gene in Staurosporine-Induced Apoptotic Cell Lines 

    Bcl2A1 (B-cell lymphoma 2 – related protein A1) is a member of a gene set that plays a critical role in regulating apoptosis of mammalian cells. The family is divided into 2 groups: (1) anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bcl2A1 and (2) pro-apoptotic genes Bid, Bax, Bak. Apoptosis in cells is regulated by a balanced expression of these groups. In this study, the ORF encoding the 175 amino acid bovine Bcl2A1 protein was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using specific primers deduced from the bovine Bcl2A1 mRNA sequence (www//ncbi.nlm.nih.org. Acc: AB195549) and which also contained appropriate restriction endonuclease cleavage sites for cloning.

    The product was then cloned into plasmid pcDNA3+ to construct the eucaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.Bcl2A1. Hela, L11, Vero and WSL cell lines were used to investigate apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Monitoring of cellular DNA fragmentation revealed that incubation with staurosporine at a concentration of 2 µM results in a sufficient level of apoptosis induction in Hela, L11, WSL cell cultures after 6 hours and in Vero cell cultures after 12 hours. Transfection of these cell lines with pcDNA3.Bcl2A1, using pseudorabies virus Us3 protein kinase (PrVUs3) which prevents staurosporine induced apoptosis by interacting with the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bad as a control, proved that expression of the bovine Bcl2A1 gene blocks staurosporine-induced apoptosis in Hela and L11 cell lines. However, this activity was not observed in WSL and Vero cell cultures.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Luu Quang Minh, Vu Chi Cuong, Pham Thi Phuong Mai, Giang Thi Thanh Nhan, Tran Xuan Toan, Luong Nhan Tuan, Günther M. Keil, Tran Xuan Hoan

    Published by Macrothink Institute)


  • admin 5:19 pm on June 24, 2013 Permalink  

    Effects of Different Types of Oils on Growth Performance, Survival and Carcass Composition of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 

    The study evaluated the growth performance, survival and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous (25%) and isocaloric (186 cal/kg) diets containing different types of oils (fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) (Soybean oil (SO) and Peanut oil (PO)) at 6% level for a period of 42 days.

    Significant difference was observed in the body weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) values, body protein and lipid content. The diet E containing a mixture of vegetable oils in equal proportions (1:1) produced the best results WG (413.25%), SGR (3.86) and FCR (1.37), whereas the diet B (75% FO + 25% VO) showed the poorest performance WG, FCR and SGR. The survival rate ranged from 55 to 100%, being 55% for C (50% FO+ 50%VO), 65% for A (100% FO) and 100% for B (75% FO+ 25%VO), D (25% FO+ 75%VO) and E (100%VO). The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. Fish fed on diets B (75% FO+ 25%VO), C (50% FO+ 50%VO), E (100%VO) presented the highest body protein content compared to initial fish. The highest body protein content was obtained in the fish fed on diet B (75% FO+ 25%VO).

    There was no significant difference in the body protein content of fish fed on diet C (50% FO+ 50%VO) and E (100%VO) also between the initial fish and those fed on diet D (25% FO + 75% VO). The lowest body protein content was obtained with fish fed diet with A (100% FO). Tilapia fed diet containing 100% FO, had the highest body lipid content compared to the initial fish. The lowest body lipid contain was observed in the fish fed on B (75% FO+ 25%VO). There was no significant difference in body lipid and protein content among fish fed diet with D (25% FO+ 75%VO) and initial fish.

    Results of the present study suggest that diet supplemented with a mixture of vegetable oils (SO and PO) could totally replace fish oil and produce the best growth response in Oreochromis niloticus.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Mariama Sagne, Abdoulaye Loum, Jean Fall, Diegane Ndong, Malick Diouf, Alassane Sarr, Omar Thiom Thiaw.

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

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