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  • admin 5:38 pm on July 31, 2013 Permalink  

    Floristic Inventory of Woody Species in the Manengouba Mountain Forest, Cameroon 

    The limit of the guinea-Congolese and Afro highlander regions is situated between 1800-2200 m (Letouzey, 1985). One notes that the Cameroonian mountains, with the specific example of mount Manengouba (2396 m), form an archipelago connected comfortably (in the floristic point of view), to the other archipelago highlanders of oriental Africa and southern Africa (White, 1983). All these archipelagos include preferential taxa, to the echelon of the family or the species.

    Many works on the structure and biodiversity have been achieved in forests of low and middle altitudes in African, Malagasy and Neotropical regions (Villanueva, 1991; Spichiger et al., 1992, 1996; Lejoly, 1995; Rabevohitra et al., 1996; Sonke, 1998; Collin, 1998; Rakotomalaza and Messmer, 1999; D’Amigo and Gautier, 2000; Senterre et al., 2004; Senterre, 2005). They enabled the circumscription of quantitative values for the families and the species of these types of forest. The mountain forests haven’t had such investigations conducted according to similar methodologies. Will the characteristic values of the structure and diversity parameters determined in the mountain Manengouba forest permit establishment of differences between her and the forests of low and medium African, Malagasy and neotropical altitudes, or to unite them in the same wholes?

    This survey was done on the Manengouba mount, towards the side of Mbouroukou, at 2000-2200 m of altitude. Vegetation is disrupted by the surrounding populations. The stem barks of Prunus africana are removed for example regularly for medicinal uses, an inconvinence that drags many precocious trees and bushes to mortality. The herds of beef (of the Bororos) that graze in the highlander prairie disrupt vegetation by their stampings. The species introduced (Persea americana for example) integrate to the autochthonous flora. This human activity also orders this survey, before a more advanced disruption.

    Aims and objectives: The present study was aimed to make a sampling of the Manengouba forest by summaries of plots, taking into account the trees in DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) > 10 cm, to establish their structural and diversity parameters quantitatively, and to characterize the Manengouba forest in relation with the data (already established) of the low and medium altitude forests.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Emmanuel Noumi

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 5:10 pm on July 29, 2013 Permalink  

    Defining a Critical Mass Threshold for Agricultural Support Services 

    The structure of the American agriculture is decidedly changed from that of the previous century. Mechanization and other technological advances have wildly increased the productivity of industrialized operations at the national scale. With downward pressure on commodity prices, incomes to small and medium sized farmers have eroded. Many contemporary family farms now depend on non-farm income to maintain their livelihoods. This decline in the economic viability of lower-intensity agriculture is destabilizing many rural communities. Where small farmers once purchased inputs from local suppliers and sold their products in local or regional markets, the vertical integration of industrial operations are closing off important linkages in the agricultural value chain. With dwindling access to critical products and services, smaller farms face increasing costs of production, coupled with suppressed commodity prices, endangering their long-term financial stability.

    This paper poses the hypothesis that there is a threshold, or point of critical mass, in agricultural production, below which a variety of businesses, institutions, and supplier networks that provide support services to agriculture, may be expected to close down or relocate outside the region. Using four counties in western North Carolina as a case study, this paper examines the critical mass threshold for agricultural support services necessary to overcome structural barriers and sustain agriculture in this rural region. The research provides local policy makers with evidence for and against the existence of a critical mass threshold and highlights which support service categories may be most at-risk. These techniques, and the challenges faced by western North Carolina, are generalizable to other rural regions, especially those in Appalachia and other mountainous regions.

    The region, in this context, includes the counties of Buncombe, Henderson, Madison, and Transylvania in the western mountains of North Carolina. In western North Carolina, farms are of smaller than average size and face constraints of geography and climate. Steep ridges and narrow valley bottoms limit the cultivatable land area. As a result, many farms achieve subsistence through diversified production; taking advantage of not only the fertile valley floor, but also the grassy slopes for livestock, and timber harvesting on the wooded ridge tops. In the past, the mountainous terrain greatly restricted farmers’ access to global markets. With the introduction of the railroad in the 1800’s, and development of the Interstate Highways in the late 1950’s and 60’s, the region is now strategically well situated for the distribution of goods to the highly competitive markets of the Northeast and South. Unfortunately, it appears that the region’s limited capacity to produce high volumes of agricultural goods restrict its ability to capitalize on this comparative advantage.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Aaron J. Nousaine, G. Jason Jolley

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:05 pm on July 25, 2013 Permalink  

    Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition and Survival Rate of Fry Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Reared under Re-circulating System 

    Aquaculture is nowadays developing in Senegal and has become an increasingly important source of animal protein. Tilapia, the most farmed species worldwide, is considered as the most semi-intensive cultivated freshwater fish in Senegal (NAA, 2012).

    Feeding represent 40-60% of production costs in aquaculture, with protein sources accounting for significant proportion of such cost (Fotedar, 2004). It provides the essential and non-essential amino acids which are required for muscle formation and enzymatic function, on one hand, and also provides energy for maintenance, on the other hand (Yang et al., 2002). Excess protein in fish diet might be wasteful and make diet uselessly expensive (Ahmad, 2000).

    One of major factors which limit economic success in any commercial farming of species is food requirement. As important dietary stuff, protein consisted of animals directly influences on the formulation of diets and therefore affects production’s cost. A wide range of feeding habits from carnivorous to herbivorous animals has been suggested as one possible reason for the wide range in protein requirements among fish species. As the main and most expensive component of the diet, protein draws greater attention in nutrition requirement studies.

    Protein (most expensive macronutrient) requirement for fish fry is high and ranges from 35% to 56% (Jauncy & Ross, 1982). Furthermore, dietary protein requirements decreased with the development size and age of fish (El-Sayed & Teshima, 1991). Based on various studies general conclusion is made that tilapia fry of size <1 g requires diet with 35-50% protein, while 1-5 g fish requires diet with 30-40% protein and 5-25 g fish requires diet with 25-35% protein (Balarin & Haller, 1982).

    Fry feed generally contains higher level of protein because the latter and energy requirements are higher in the early stages of life. Protein content of fry feed for tilapia farming has not been standardized yet although some farms use food stuff having 40% protein. So, it is essential to recommend the appropriate protein level of fry feed for economic production of healthy fry and maximize its lifespan as well.

    However, the present study has been undertaken to conduct experimentation with different protein level diets viz. 21%, 25%, 32% 37% and 45% protein of fry feed to determine growth performance and survival rate of tilapia fry at different protein levels.

    The main objective of this trial was to determine the optimum protein level which is necessary for optimum growth of monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under re-circulating system.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Abdoulaye Loum, Mariama Sagne, Jean Fall, Diegane Ndong, Malick Diouf, Alassane Sarr, Omar Thiom Thiaw

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:42 pm on July 24, 2013 Permalink  

    Effect Of Microwave Radiation On The Retina Of Mice Embryos 

    Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together through the space. Microwaves are a subset of radiowaves which have frequencies between 3 kHz- 300GHz. It constitutes part of the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Mobile telephony has developed rapidly over the past ten years. It is now a part of the basic equipment of modern life and over 1.3 billion phones are in use worldwide. The first mobile phone system was analog and used frequencies from 450 and up to 900 MHz. Now the digital system, is operated at somewhat higher frequencies (1800-1900 MHz) and it uses different modulating. Over the last few years, concerns about health effects caused by exposure to the microwaves emitted by mobile telephones and base stations have increased as becoming a major societal issue in some countries, or at least among part of the population.

    Berman et al. (1981) found no significant differences in the number of alive, dead or total fetuses and in the incidences of external, visceral, or skeletal anomalies between control and experimental fetuses maternally exposed to microwave at power density 28 mW/cm2 for 100 minutes daily from the 6th day to the 15th day of pregnancy. Nawrot et al. (1981) noted a reduction in fetal weight in CD-1 mice exposed to 30mW/cm2of electromagnetic waves during days 1-6 of gestation. Exposure of pregnant mice to a power density of 30mW/cm2from the 6th day to the 15th day of gestation resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of malformed fetuses, predominantly with cleft palate. Lary et al. (1982) stated that high-intensity 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) caused a significant incidence of fetal malformations throughout the post implantation period (days7 through 15). It also caused a low but significant incidence of pre-implantation malformations. Fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced in all post-implantation exposure groups but were not affected by pre-implantation exposure. The incidence of dead or resorbed fetuses was significantly increased in rats irradiated on days 7 or 9ofpregnancy.Marcickiewiczetal. (1986)statedthatthepregnantSwissmiceirradiationof 2 hours daily on days 1-8 of gestation with non-thermal intensity (1 or 10 mW/cm2) at 2450 MHz microwave did not lead to resorption or detectable malformations; however, the body massof19-day-fetuseswassignificantlylowerthanthatofthe control.Ontheotherhand,the microwave hyperthermia (40 mW/cm2) at the same conditions led to an increased number of resorptions (about 25%) compared to control (2%). O’Conner (1999) stated that the most remarkable observation at intrauterine exposure to radiofrequency (RF) at high exposure was a decrease in fetal mass.

    Bornhausen and Cheingraber (2000) found that there was no effect on offspring behavior performance of Wister rats maternally exposed continuously during pregnancy to a low-level electromagnetic field (900 MHz) that approximated the highest legal exposure of normal population to the radiation of base antennas of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) digital cell-phone. Lahijani and Ghafoori (2000) exposed freshly fertilized chicken eggs to 50Hz during the first 24hours of post laying incubation. All EMF-exposed groups showed an increase in the percentage of developmental anomalies compared to the control. Also, the investigation showed significant differences in the measurements of body weight, length of crown to rump, heart and liver. Grigor’ev (2003) exposed the chicken embryos to electromagnetic field (EMF) from global system for mobile (GSM) during the embryonic development (21 days). The author found that the embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in the control group).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Fawzy I. Amer, Hamza A. El Shabaka, Iman Zakaria, Hend A. Mohammed

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:34 pm on July 24, 2013 Permalink  

    Strategy Implementation Traceability of Breeding Shrimp Business in Indonesia 

    Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) is a ‘native shrimp’ Indonesia. Activities: arrest broodstock, captive breeding to produce seed until shrimp are cultured in Indonesia basically produce shrimp first derivative or F1. Broodstock tiger shrimp in Indonesia has been standardized in SNI 01-6142-2006 namely Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798 (Anonymous, 2008. Nurdjana, 2008).

    Vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), comes from the waters of the Pacific Ocean in the Hawaiian Islands and the West coast of America; making broodstock go to Indonesia is the first derivative of F1 from crosses or natural broodstock at the hatchery on the islands of Hawaii. Therefore, vannamei shrimp cultivated in Indonesia as F1 is essentially a second-generation seed or F2.

    Regulation of the Minister of Marine and Fisheries Phone PER.03/MEN/2005 about quarantine measures by third parties; articles 2, 3 and 4 require careful monitoring. Articles 6, 7 and 8 as a form of action that can be taken by the Government with no third-party oversight of technical rules. In addition, the Minister of Marine and Fisheries Number PER.15/MEN/2011 on Quality Control and Safety of Fishery The Log into the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Article 6 (paragraph 2) – there is no requirement of integrity pact as a form of full responsibility importer which states that: if the imported fish is detected as carriers of disease or potentially harmful to the spread of disease will be immediately destroyed instantly, including all losses are borne by the importer. There is also no form of supervision by an independent party to quarantine the fish (which comes from imports) is. Whereas the broodstock in the preparation of the document traceability from sea to table is upstream of all the problems in the shrimp business in Indonesia.

    Businesses seeding states that that there is no regulation or standard of Good Breeding Practices Operaional procedure is technically capable of guaranteeing free treatment of antibiotics. Hatchery since 2004 have begun to consciously change the way seed movement by abandoning the use of antibiotics and to promote the use of probiotics.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Angky Soedrijanto, Martani Huseini, Margono Setiawan, Eddy Suprayitno

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 7:40 pm on July 22, 2013 Permalink  

    Effect of Exogenous Phytase on the Phosphorus Balance of Lactating Cows Fed A Corn Based Diet 

    In the past, dairy cows were often fed diets containing P levels markedly higher than the recommendations for P supply. The most common explanation for this oversupply is the perception that high-P diets improve reproductive performance. In addition, the recommendations for adequate P supply differ from nation to nation (CVB, 2005; GfE, 2001; INRA, 2002; NRC, 2001; Schlegel, 2011). Consequential the proportion of excreted P, which is not used to meet the requirements of the cow, increases. Moreover, natural P sources used as mineral feedstuffs become more and more limited in the future (Rodehutscord, 2008).

    Therefore, it remains a challenge for animal nutrition to reduce the dietary P supply while meeting the requirement at the same time. One way to increase the P-absorption and to reduce faecal P is the supply of exogenous phytase to the diets (Knowlton et al., 2007). The enzyme phytase has a relevant impact in the reduction of P-excretion by excrements from monogastrics. Due to its ability to cleave phosphate from its binding to the inositol ring, phytase supply more P for absorption in the small intestine (Guyton et al., 2003). In ruminants, phytase is secreted intracellular by ruminal bacteria (Yanke et al., 1998) and phytate hydrolysis also occurs in the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine with duodenum, jejunum, ileum) of ruminants. Thus the total tract hydrolysis of phytate is nearly complete (Brask-Pedersen et al., 2013). However, for P to be absorbed from the small intestine, the phytate hydrolysis must occur in the rumen. Using in vitro ruminal techniques Morse et al. (1992) and Brask-Pedersen et al. (2011) found out that the effect of exogenous phytase is closely related to the composition of the feedstuff, the pH-value level, the kind of phytase and the time of incubation. Additionally, Brask-Pedersen et al. (2011) observed that the supply of exogenous phytase in vitro can influence the P-utilization positively. These results are sustained by Garikipati and Kincaid (2004), who figured out a positive effect of the influence of exogenous phytase in dairy cows. However, data regarding the intake of P and the use of exogenous phytase are inadequate. Kincaid et al. (2005) tested the effects of grain source and exogenous phytase supplementation on the digestibility of P and concluded that exogenous phytase could have an influence on the faecal P-excretion of dairy cows.

    Although the main part of phytase activity in the rumen is of bacterial origin (Yanke et al., 1998), phytin hydrolysis might also be caused by intrinsic phytase contained in the diet, whereby however only some cereals and their by-products show phytase activities of more than 100 units/kg (Eeckhout & De Paepe, 1994). The phytase activity in corn is below the detection limit (Zimmermann et al., 2002). According to current knowledge, there is no certain way to identify the quantitative influence of plant phytase on ruminal phytate hydrolysis (Kincaid & Rodehutscord, 2005). Experiments in a semi-continuous culture system by Godoy and Meschy (1999) with P of inorganic and organic origin suggest that in some situations the ruminal phytase activity does not hydrolyze all dietary phytate. Time of incubation of feed in the gastro intestinal tract is getting shorter in high lactating cows, because the feed intake increases with the increasing performance. Based on this, the passage rate increases and with this the time of P-hydrolyses gets even lower (Garikipati & Kincaid, 2004).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Laura Winter, Ulrich Meyer, Markus Spolders, Liane Hüther, Peter Lebzien, Sven Dänicke

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:52 pm on July 19, 2013 Permalink  

    Association of Hand Length with Height in Nigerian School Children 

    Estimation of the body size such as height and weight are required for assessment of growth, nutritional status, calculating body surface area and predicting pulmonary function of children (Gauld et al., 2004; Amirsheybani et al., 2000). Measurement of height is important for determination of basic energy requirement, standardization, and measures of physical capacity and for adjusting drug dosages (Jalzem and Gledhill, 1993). However in some situations the exact height cannot be determined directly because the patient is unable to stand as a result of neuromuscular weakness, deformities of axial skeleton such as kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, lost of lower limbs and in patients who have undergone amputations (Duyar and Pelin, 2003; Duyar et al., 2006). In such patients, height does not reflect the body size and the use of height measurements in prediction equation is likely to produce error. For example in scoliosis patients, the predicted spirometric values were underestimated when the measured body was used and under such circumstances, an estimate of height has to be computed based on another body parameters (Amirsheybani et al., 2001; De Mendonca, 2000).

    The hand length was found to be the most reliable alternative and the hand can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in height. The length of the body while alive is one of the key parameters established in the course of identification of unknown skeletal remains (Hauser et al., 2005; Auberch and Ruff, 2004). Stature provides insight into various features of a population including nutritional health and genetics. Stature is considered as one of the parameters for personal identification (Krishan and Sharma, 2007; Anitie, 2007).

    The most important applications of anthropology at field level include biological anthropology, epidemiology, clinical application and in metabolic research (Bidmos, 2006; Bidmos, 2009). The hand length could be used to predict body weight status and body surface area independent of the sex of the individual (Bidmos, 2009). Correlation between hand length and foot length has also been studied and that if the hand length is known, the foot length can be predicted and vice-versa. Hand length has been shown to be a reliable and precise means in predicting the height of an individual (Gauld and Rakhir, 1996; Ebites et al., 2000).

    In forensic investigations, the dimensions of the hand and foot have been used in the determination of sex, age, stature of an individual. Stature reconstruction is important as it provides forensic anthropological estimation of the height of a person in the living state which plays a vital role in the identification of individual remains (Bhatnagar et al., 1984; Boldsen, 1984). Intact long limb bones have been used in the derivation of regression equations for stature assessment in different population groups. Anthropologist observes and compared the relation between body and segments to highlight variations between and within groups. Determination of stature is a major concern in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology (Fessler et al., 2005). The bone area values at different sites strongly correlates to muscle strength and also correlate to body size; height, weight, lean mass, fat mass and body mass index (BMI) (Fessler et al, 2005). It is commonly accepted that standards for skeletal identification vary among different populations and the standard for one population may not be used for another (Thakur and Rai, 1987; Iscan, 1988).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Augustine OSELOKA Ibegbu, Eniola Tosin David, Willson Oliver Hamman, Uduak Emmanuel Umana, Sunday Abraham Musa

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:03 pm on July 18, 2013 Permalink  

    Protein Fractions of Pearl Millet Submitted to Different Nitrogen Doses and Cutting Ages 

    Brazilian livestock breeding is closely linked to exploitation of natural and cultivated pastures, so high productivity of forage grasses is one of the main factors responsible for the success of this activity. Annual grasses that mature in the hot season, such as millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.), are important elements in grazing systems that aim to obtain high forage yield and animal productivity in relation to area. According to Moojen et al. (1999), this species adapts well to the climate conditions in the Midwest region of Brazil and is able to produce a large quantity of good-quality forage in a short time. Due to the variability among genotypes, the choice of cultivar is an important decision and should consider genetic factors of the plant and regional edaphoclimatic factors. Millet has excellent nutritional value, good palatability and digestibility and is nontoxic to animals at all growing stages. Benedetti (1999) evaluated millet grown in a broadcast seeding system and measured average crude protein (CP) concentrations between 8.0 and 9.2% after 30 days of growth, while at the end of the pasture cycle the levels varied from 3.2 to 4.6%, which limited consumption.

    According to Corsi (1995), nitrogen is the main component of the protoplasm after water. It acts in various metabolic processes, composing part of the hormones, and directly affects the photosynthesis process through its presence in the chlorophyll molecule. The application of N on forage plants can stimulate production of mass, and if there are no limitations due to production factors and lack of other nutrients, the increments can be very high (Silva et al., 2008). Kollet et al. (2006) evaluated the qualitative characteristics of pearl millet cultivars at three cutting ages: 35, 42 and 49 days, with application of 20 kg ha-1 of N, incorporated in the soil before planting, plus side dressing of 60 kg.ha-1 applied when the plants reached 10 cm in height, measuring CP values of 13.9 to 20.6%.Advances in the knowledge of ruminant nutrition, especially in the past decade, have enabled the development of new feeding systems and methods of assessing livestock feed tomaximize use of forage plants. The supply of ruminants’ nutritional needs, according to Mello and Norberg (2004), depends on the energy content of the diet that can be utilized by the ruminal microorganisms or be absorbed from the ruminal escape in other compartments of the digestive tract. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a system that considers the dynamics of ruminal fermentation and potential loss of nitrogen, as ammonia, in the evaluation of animal feeds (Sniffen et al., 1992), with the objective of adjusting ruminal digestion of carbohydrates and proteins to increase microbial production, reduce losses of N and estimate the ruminal escape of nutrients (Balsalobre et al., 2003). Although there have been numerous studies of the chemical composition of the forage grasses predominant in Brazil, there is little information available regarding their nutritive value, especially related to the fractionation of nutrients in function of the management conditions with use of nitrogen fertilizer.

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize and identify the protein fractions contained in two pearl millet cultivars (ADR-300 and BN-1) submitted to different N doses and cutting ages, under the conditions in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás state, Brazil.


    For full text: click here

    (Author: Oscar L. Faria Júnior, Aldi F. de S. França, Alzira G. da Silva-Pause, Eliane S. Miyagi, Hugo J. M. C. Peron, Emmanuel Arnhold, Alessandra G. Mascarenhas, Daniel S. Corrêa

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:37 pm on July 17, 2013 Permalink  

    Hematological Changes in an Ovine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction 

    Today, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the foremost cause of mortality in many countries around the world. When studying MI in large mammals, pigs or sheep are usually used. We chose sheep because, unlike pigs, whose cardiomyocytes have up to 32 nuclei, ovine cardiomyocytes have only 1–4 nuclei, thus being more similar to the human (Adler et al., 1996). In addition, pigs are more prone to develop irreversible ventricular fibrillation than sheep, this leading to higher mortality. A detailed guide with a practical, safe and reliable for induction of MI in ovine models by ligating the main diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery has been reported previously (Kim et al., 2005; Rabbani et al., 2008).

    Many studies have been published for hematologic and biochemical analysis in relation to acute MI in human (Friedman et al., 1974; Jan et al., 1975; Zalokar et al., 1981; Tahnk-Johnson and Sharkey, 1993; Kobayashi et al., 2001), however, few studies for the observation of alterations in these indices from acute MI has been accomplished (Dodds et al., 1980; Nikolaidis et al., 2003; Aronson et al., 2007). The present study was designed to explore the relationship between the extent of myocardial injury following coronary ligation and the degree of hemodynamic changes in sheep within 1 week after LAD ligation.

    All procedures were approved by the Laboratory Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Tehran, and performed in accordance with the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 85-23, revised 1996). Ten healthy, non-obese, adult, male sheep weighing 30-35 kg were randomly divided into two groups (n=5 each) including Group І (without MI or sham-operated control group) and Group ІІ (with MI) with age- and sex-matched ones. During the study, the animals had free access to water and were fed with a mixed diet of hay and sheep pellets.

    All animals were housed for 1 week in the animal house so they would be adapted to the environment. They were examined by a veterinarian and a cardiologist, clinically, and some were excluded from the study if any serious morbidity was detected. Animals in group II were subjected to coronary artery ligation after lateral thoracotomy. Surgical procedures were performed under general anesthesia by intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and electrocardiographic monitoring (Kim et al., 2005; Rabbani et al., 2008). Acute MI was inducted by ligating the second diagonal branch of the LAD, as described previously by Rabbani et al. (2008).

    This method has been documented as a practical, reliable and safe ovine model of inducing MI in paraclinical investigations. After surgical preparation/drape, a 15- to 20-cm-long left lateral thoracotomy incision was carried out through the fourth intercostals space. After the pericardium was opened, the coronary anatomy was inspected. The second diagonal branch of LAD coronary artery was ligated using a curved round needle and 6-0 prolene suture at a point approximately 40% distant from its base. Occlusion of the coronary artery was confirmed by the cyanotic appearance of the ischemic area (Fig.1), and ventricular hypokinesia plus ST-segment changes on electrocardiography (ECG).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi, Elaheh Pishgahzadeh

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 5:23 pm on July 16, 2013 Permalink  

    Promising Antifungal Effect of Rice (Oryza sativa L.), Oat (Avena sativa L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Extracts 

    The grains contamination is inevitable and many biotic and abiotic factors affect this. Many
    species are toxigenic and among them the Aspergillus and Fusarium are also phytopathogenic,
    causing diseases that are difficult to control in cereal crops (Dambolena et al., 2012; Lee et al.,
    2007). The knowledge about natural resistence against specific fungal genus and its location
    in the vegetable might be a strategic way to control the contamination problem (Armando et
    al., 2013).

    Some researchers have attempted to find these natural compounds products with
    antifungal effects for proper that might be recovery from wastes as interesting possibility, for
    economic and environment benefits (Pagnussatt et al., 2012b; Viuda-Martos et al., 2008).
    Then, simple tools for identify this properties are very useful to technology development
    preventing crops environment and human health damage (Zao et al., 2010; Del Río et al.,

    Among the compounds naturally present in plants tissues, some inhibit the microbial activity,
    such as alpha-amylase inhibitors which can alter fungal growth (Pagnussatt et al., 2012a;
    Pagnussatt et al., 2011a; Figueira et al., 2003). Others proteic compounds are being related to
    the expression of the biosynthesis regulatory gene, or even block the activity of the enzyme in
    the microorganism or insects metabolism (Lee et al., 2007; Kadozawa et al., 2002).

    The screening of these natural antifungal compounds is the first step to select a variety but
    recovery them from cereal wastes (Velutti et al., 2004), allowing a sustainable agriculture and
    promoting environmental quality is not a frequent evaluation. However, this would be a
    promising alternative to limit the fungal contamination.

    The antimicrobial activity can be determined by in vitro or application tests. In the screening
    method, the crude compounds under study are applied directly on the product and provide
    preliminary information about its defense potential. In other type the antimicrobial agent is
    applied directly in a culture media and its effect is evaluated by hyphae inhibition or chemical
    fungal constituent’s production (Del Río et al., 2003).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt, Cristiana Costa Bretanha, Larine Kupski, Jaqueline Garda-Buffon, Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

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