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  • admin 5:43 pm on October 31, 2013 Permalink  

    Why Macrothink Institute Embraced Open Access Journal Publishing 

    Macrothink Institute (Twitter) is a relatively new private organization and scholarly publisher. It aims at significantly contributing to scientific developments through digital journals. Unlike their paper-based counterparts, digital journals are efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly. Digitalized journals also enable the institute to share researchers’ ideas across the globe through itsopen access journal publishing system.


    What is Open Access Journal Publishing

    Open access is the practice of allowing unrestricted access via the Internet to scholarly journals and peer-reviewed research. By implementing this system, Macrothink Institute offers 20 journal titles categorized under four sections: Biology and Medicine, Economics and Management, Sciences and Engineering, and Social Sciences and Humanities. Some titles available are:

    • Journal of Agricultural Studies
    • Journal of Applied Biotechnology
    • Journal of Management Research
    • Aquatic Science and Technology
    • Network Protocols and Algorithms
    • International Journal of English Language Education
    • Journal of Sociological Research

    To access any of these, head to the Institute’s official website and click on the journal you want to read followed by the article of your choice. You will then be able to read the material’s abstract to decide whether the article’s PDF is worth viewing or downloading.

    New materials are added to the journal regularly. The institute collects and archives the materials but only after carefully processing them and ensuring that they conform to author guidelines.

    The Benefits of Macrothink’s Open Access Journal Publishing System

    The journal publisher’s decision to implement an open access journal system offers numerous benefits to students, scientists and educators alike. Here are the top advantages of this software.

    • Free Access to Knowledge – Macrothink’s strong sense of responsibility has pushed it to counter the ‘serials crisis’, which is a problem libraries across the world face as they cut down their journal subscriptions to keep within their budgets. By offering free access to its journals, it helps researchers and educators get the latest information without affecting their affiliated institute’s funds.
    • Easier Access – You can retrieve publications easily since they’re easy to catch through regular and specialized search engines such as Google and OAIster. Once you find these, you can search for text within the articles, saving your time and effort during research.
    • Multiple Benefits for Authors – Despite having to pay for publishing their research, authors benefit the most from this system. Not only do they get to share their research and findings with a wider base, but digitalizing their materials also helps detect plagiarism during early stages. This spares them from having to write retractions or publish corrections.

    Now the opponents of open access may be against this, especially since they believe that such journals lack quality. However, the Macrothink Institute uses the CrossCheck plagiarism checking tool and employs skilled reviewers to check submitted yet unpublished documents.

    Macrothink Institute is a serious and rigorous publisher that aims at helping the researchers community in Canada and the world. Therefore, don’t hesitate to log onto its website and check the list of journals it has to offer.

  • admin 6:10 pm on October 17, 2013 Permalink  

    Macrothink Institute – The Trend Setter in Digital Era Publishes Electronic Journals 

    Dedicated to academic publication and scientific research, this private organization leads in the field of digital scholarly publications. The institute facilitates its online readers through open access features that enable the students and researchers from all over the world to access, read, and benefit from its research journals.

    Macrothink Institute (Twitter) realizes that the print versions of scholarly research journals are costly not only to the institute itself, but to the ultimate end users too. Besides, the electronic versions are far better in reach as compared to the print versions. Online scholarly journals are accessible to the masses at a highly reduced cost.

    The institute also contributes to environment conservation through less paper use. Macrothink Institute provides international exposure to potential researchers as it sponsors their research work. It is indeed a commendable attempt to promote scientific research. There’s no subscription fee for reading or downloading the journals that the institute publishes.

    Electronic Journal Publication – The Latest Trend

    More and more publications and research institutes are now shifting to electronic publications because print versions are no longer efficient. Printed journals are costly and do not offer mass coverage. Internet connectivity and a computer device are needed to access these journals. These contain written content, graphics, and media files for better understanding of the readers. Researchers, students, universities, and several other entities benefit from electronic journals.

    Though some publishers charge a certain subscription fee on annual basis or charge every time you access the publication, Macrothink’s journals are accessible essentially free of cost. In today’s electronic and digital era, no other medium can be as effective and efficient as are the electronic journals. They provide information at a click of the mouse.

    Applications of Electronic Publications in the Academic World

    All the recognized and reputable institutes subscribe to monthly research journals so that their students can benefit from them. Faculty also conducts research through the information obtained from such publications. It is easy and more productive to advance a research topic further, rather than starting from scratch every time. Therefore, availability of journals that contain already conducted research helps students to proceed in a particular research area while the faculty helps them research better.

    Often times a promising research idea fails to proceed further or attain exposure only because of a lack of resources. However, open access facilitates the researchers as they can access lots of journals for free. Consequently, the benefit is transferred to the entire academic world.

    The Role of Macrothink Institute

    Macrothink Institute is indeed playing a vital role in academic and scientific research. Its electronic publications benefit people from all over the world. A strong sense of responsibility of this publisher helps to advance academic research while promoting open access journals.


  • admin 7:21 pm on September 13, 2013 Permalink  

    Macrothink Institute Supports the Wikimedia Foundation 

     Macrothink Institute is a renowned name in the field of scientific research, development, and publication of research papers. It’s a private organization and publishes a number of scholarly journals covering numerous disciplines of science. The journals published by Macrothink Institute are particularly for online readers, researchers, and educators. These are made completely unrestricted for users via open access features.

    The institute strongly believes in digitization, and this is the reason why all its journals are published online. Not only is it a great idea to target and serve a large number of readers, but also helps the institute to cut down on its printing costs. Anyone from any part of the world can read and download the institute’s online journals for free thus spreading education and promoting research in scientific literature.

    Though Macrothink Institute is a private organization, its mission and objectives revolve around a social cause. The institute sponsors a lot of research projects that it believes are worth publishing. By financially supporting different foundations, researchers, educators, and students, the institute helps promote original research work. Wikimedia Foundation is one of those that are truly thankful to Macrothink Institute for the funds extended to the former.

    Wikimedia Foundation was founded in 2003 with a goal to disseminate education effectively and efficiently throughout the world. It’s basically a charitable organization and runs through funds generated from different sources. The organization’s headquarter is located in California but serves online globally. A number of projects run in collaboration under the parent brand Wiki and the most popular one is Wikipedia.

    Unwavering goals of the entity since more than a decade have enabled Wikimedia Foundation to grow by leaps and bounds. It’s indeed one of the most successful organizations in the world. As facts reveal, Wikipedia, that is the flagship domain/project of the foundation, is among the top ten high-traffic websites in the world. One can find comprehensive information about any given topic, field, or discipline at Wikipedia.

    Wikimedia Foundation, as a whole, has been helping millions of online readers, students, and researchers to excel in their given fields. Free access to information is the leading cause of its success. Thanks to hundreds of donors the foundation has been operating successfully since its inception – a prominent name in this regard would be Macrothink Institute.

    Wikipedia allows its users to post, edit, update, and improve any given article from its extensive database. People referring to Wikipedia get free access to information that further helps them in conducting research studies and academic projects. Be it a qualified scholar, a famous researcher, a known educator, or simply a downtown student, Wikipedia is contributing to all their success stories.

    It’s important to support such a cause as it helps mankind to grow and be more knowledgeable in a given area. Often highly promising research papers do not get a chance to be published and thus benefits are never obtained from these. However, when individuals and organizations realize their social responsibilities, things start changing. By sponsoring research projects, it’s not only the donor that benefits from the outcome, but also those who refer to those published research papers.

    Organizations like Macrothink Institute and Wikimedia Foundation make sure that every promising piece of work gets published. When financial and promotional resources are there, why should researchers not take a step ahead and submit their research papers? Macrothink is always in search of bright researchers and Wikimedia welcomes authentic and original content.

    Macrothink Institute is a private organization dedicated to scientific research and publication. Macrothink Institute publishes online scholarly journals that are open to readers.

    As a new scholarly publisher, Macrothink Institute aims to be a significant contributor to scientific development in the digital era. We recognize that traditional print journals have some disadvantages iincluding higher costs, paper consumption, low efficiency, and limited distribution while online journals are more efficient, cost less, and are environmentally friendly. That’s why we believe digital scholarly journals are the new trend for scientific publication.



  • admin 7:20 pm on September 13, 2013 Permalink  

    Macrothink Institute Supports University of Washington NASA Space Grant 

    Devoted to scientific literature, scholarly publications, and research development, Macrothink Institute serves as a private organization. The institute does not only publish original and research oriented literature, but also promotes other such networks and foundations operating in the same domain. Macrothink Institute offers financial support to ensure that every talented researcher and student is given a chance to showcase their work and talent.

    (Photo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130911/MN77972)

    The institute believes in digitization. Therefore, unlike many other research journals that are printed, Macrothink Institute issues only digital versions of its research publications. Not only does it help protect the environment since it utilizes less paper, electronic journals are also cost-effective and accessible to a large segment of readers all over the world. An electronic database is all that is needed to distribute the published content.

    Washington NASA Space Grant Consortium (WSGC) is a network of colleges and universities that help maintain distinct position of USA in the field of aerospace, mathematics, engineering, science and technology. The primary objective of WSGC is to promote research and education and fund projects to strengthen the State’s position in aeronautics.

    Donation to front-line research helps bring authentic and original content in the limelight. No matter how brilliant a research paper is, the benefit can only be drawn once it is published and made accessible to the masses. Macrothink Institute isn’t an organization that runs on funds and donations. Instead, it extends financial support and sponsorships to ongoing research projects at a number of universities.

    Individuals, foundations, and private organizations should support such a cause. Research and development as conducted by NASA Space Grant and published by Macrothink Institute are quite beneficial. Often times there are potential researchers who have incredible research papers, but fail to publish these due to a lack of financial resources.

    Therefore, other developed entities make a huge difference if they help submit and publish such research projects for the benefit of all the concerned individuals and organizations. Not only the author, but millions of readers also benefit from research material. Besides, it helps the nation make more breakthroughs in science and technology thus encouraging more innovations down the line.

    Several students have this mindset to grow in the field of science and technology. Even more prominent and acknowledged is the field of aerospace science and technology. It’s one of the strengths of the US and which is why private and public organizations encourage potential authors to submit their research work in said fields.

    Authors and researchers get remarkable international exposure by submitting their research work on such platforms. Macrothink Institute does not only have high quality assurance and systematic network of publications, but also goes the extra mile to sponsor potential authors, if necessary. Such practices aid the country in creating brilliant minds and harnessing their potential in order to grow as a nation.


  • admin 7:55 pm on August 29, 2013 Permalink  

    Macrothink Institute Supports Wikimedia Foundation 

    Recently, Macrothink Institute support Wikimedia Foundation, an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is operates several online collaborative wiki projects including Wikipedia, Wiktionary and etc. Its flagship project, Wikipedia, ranks in the top-ten most-visited websites worldwide. Unlike conventional publishing firms, Macrothink Institute is an open access journal publisher. This requires collecting, archiving and allowing public research access to scientific, mathematical or general educational materials indicative of one’s scholarly efforts. Successful earlier models include TerraNova, Journal of Internet Medical Research and British Medical Journal.

    Macrothink Institute also supports the Open Access Journal format for sharing definitive studies, making materials immediately available after carefully vetting hundreds of quarterly research articles or white paper submissions. Their careful review process assures all materials conform to author guidelines.

    Research-based journals have widely been archived, subsidized or simply quashed by more commanding scientific nomenclature. Only few provide actual sponsorship of scientific projects, Macrothink Institute always stay positive to donate scientific or educational projects. Shared under widely accepted Creative Commons licensure, the abundance of materials Macrothink provides students, scientists and general educators far amass the general libraries, and is much quicker to read than large print books.

    Now, Macrothink Institute publishes more than 20 Open Access Journals, and makes paper publications available after careful peer reviews. To a scientific publisher, how to maintain accuracy is paramount. Editorial staff is in hierarchical format, each rank having one or more editors responsible for reviewing submissions before updating journals online. Consistently publishing works from scientists, engineers, economists and cultural experts provides an opportunity to announce developments in each of those areas.

    Macrothink Institute supports, through numerous international and local authors, the continuous efforts in expanding Open Access Journals. For reasons clearly stipulated, the importance of open journals elevates with each published paper, article and book.

  • admin 8:13 pm on August 1, 2013 Permalink  

    Quality of Breakfast Sausage Containing Legume Flours as Binders 

    The effects of different legume flours, viz., soybean, groundnut and cowpea flour, on the quality of breakfast sausage was studied.The study comprised of four treatments, treatment one with sodium caseinate served as the control while the remaining treatments contained soybean, groundnut and cowpea flour at 4% inclusion level respectively. Each treatment was replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Sausage with sodium caseinate had the highest (P<0.05) yield (92.20%), this was followed by products with cowpea (89.14%), soybean (89.00%) however, the least was obtained with product containing groundnut (80.02%). Sausage samples containing groundnut flour lost an average weight of 28.10% during cooking (P<0.05) whilst those containing sodium caseinate, soybean and cowpea flour lost an average weight of 20.91, 21.31and 21.44 % respectively.  The water holding capacity of sodium caseinate products increased significantly compared to that of soybean (70.75%) and cowpea flour (69.34%) while the least was observed in products containing groundnut flour. Formulations with soybean flour registered higher thiobarbituric acid values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.75 as against 0.57, 0.52 and 0.51 for formulations with cowpea flour, sodium caseinate and groundnut flour respectively. Sausage with soybean flour had higher (P<0.05) overall acceptability (6.30) than products with sodium caseinate (5.50), groundnut (5.10) and cowpea (4.00). However, sausage with cowpea flour had similar (P>0.05) moisture content (79.50%) with sausage that contained soybean flour (80.24%) while the highest (P<0.05) crude protein content was in treatment with sodium caseinate (19.50%) and least in sausage with cowpea flour (15.55%). The fat content was highest (P<0.05) in sausage with cowpea flour (15.35%), followed by 13.35% for sausage with soybean flour, 11.10 for formulation with groundnut flour and 10.25% for those with sodium caseinate. The quality attributes in terms of nutrient, flavour, juiciness and tenderness were better in sausage with soybean flour compared to sausage produced using other legume flours.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Omojola Andrew Babatunde, Adetunji Victor Ayodeji, Olusola Olubunmi Olufemi

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 5:38 pm on July 31, 2013 Permalink  

    Floristic Inventory of Woody Species in the Manengouba Mountain Forest, Cameroon 

    The limit of the guinea-Congolese and Afro highlander regions is situated between 1800-2200 m (Letouzey, 1985). One notes that the Cameroonian mountains, with the specific example of mount Manengouba (2396 m), form an archipelago connected comfortably (in the floristic point of view), to the other archipelago highlanders of oriental Africa and southern Africa (White, 1983). All these archipelagos include preferential taxa, to the echelon of the family or the species.

    Many works on the structure and biodiversity have been achieved in forests of low and middle altitudes in African, Malagasy and Neotropical regions (Villanueva, 1991; Spichiger et al., 1992, 1996; Lejoly, 1995; Rabevohitra et al., 1996; Sonke, 1998; Collin, 1998; Rakotomalaza and Messmer, 1999; D’Amigo and Gautier, 2000; Senterre et al., 2004; Senterre, 2005). They enabled the circumscription of quantitative values for the families and the species of these types of forest. The mountain forests haven’t had such investigations conducted according to similar methodologies. Will the characteristic values of the structure and diversity parameters determined in the mountain Manengouba forest permit establishment of differences between her and the forests of low and medium African, Malagasy and neotropical altitudes, or to unite them in the same wholes?

    This survey was done on the Manengouba mount, towards the side of Mbouroukou, at 2000-2200 m of altitude. Vegetation is disrupted by the surrounding populations. The stem barks of Prunus africana are removed for example regularly for medicinal uses, an inconvinence that drags many precocious trees and bushes to mortality. The herds of beef (of the Bororos) that graze in the highlander prairie disrupt vegetation by their stampings. The species introduced (Persea americana for example) integrate to the autochthonous flora. This human activity also orders this survey, before a more advanced disruption.

    Aims and objectives: The present study was aimed to make a sampling of the Manengouba forest by summaries of plots, taking into account the trees in DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) > 10 cm, to establish their structural and diversity parameters quantitatively, and to characterize the Manengouba forest in relation with the data (already established) of the low and medium altitude forests.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Emmanuel Noumi

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 5:10 pm on July 29, 2013 Permalink  

    Defining a Critical Mass Threshold for Agricultural Support Services 

    The structure of the American agriculture is decidedly changed from that of the previous century. Mechanization and other technological advances have wildly increased the productivity of industrialized operations at the national scale. With downward pressure on commodity prices, incomes to small and medium sized farmers have eroded. Many contemporary family farms now depend on non-farm income to maintain their livelihoods. This decline in the economic viability of lower-intensity agriculture is destabilizing many rural communities. Where small farmers once purchased inputs from local suppliers and sold their products in local or regional markets, the vertical integration of industrial operations are closing off important linkages in the agricultural value chain. With dwindling access to critical products and services, smaller farms face increasing costs of production, coupled with suppressed commodity prices, endangering their long-term financial stability.

    This paper poses the hypothesis that there is a threshold, or point of critical mass, in agricultural production, below which a variety of businesses, institutions, and supplier networks that provide support services to agriculture, may be expected to close down or relocate outside the region. Using four counties in western North Carolina as a case study, this paper examines the critical mass threshold for agricultural support services necessary to overcome structural barriers and sustain agriculture in this rural region. The research provides local policy makers with evidence for and against the existence of a critical mass threshold and highlights which support service categories may be most at-risk. These techniques, and the challenges faced by western North Carolina, are generalizable to other rural regions, especially those in Appalachia and other mountainous regions.

    The region, in this context, includes the counties of Buncombe, Henderson, Madison, and Transylvania in the western mountains of North Carolina. In western North Carolina, farms are of smaller than average size and face constraints of geography and climate. Steep ridges and narrow valley bottoms limit the cultivatable land area. As a result, many farms achieve subsistence through diversified production; taking advantage of not only the fertile valley floor, but also the grassy slopes for livestock, and timber harvesting on the wooded ridge tops. In the past, the mountainous terrain greatly restricted farmers’ access to global markets. With the introduction of the railroad in the 1800’s, and development of the Interstate Highways in the late 1950’s and 60’s, the region is now strategically well situated for the distribution of goods to the highly competitive markets of the Northeast and South. Unfortunately, it appears that the region’s limited capacity to produce high volumes of agricultural goods restrict its ability to capitalize on this comparative advantage.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Aaron J. Nousaine, G. Jason Jolley

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:05 pm on July 25, 2013 Permalink  

    Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition and Survival Rate of Fry Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Reared under Re-circulating System 

    Aquaculture is nowadays developing in Senegal and has become an increasingly important source of animal protein. Tilapia, the most farmed species worldwide, is considered as the most semi-intensive cultivated freshwater fish in Senegal (NAA, 2012).

    Feeding represent 40-60% of production costs in aquaculture, with protein sources accounting for significant proportion of such cost (Fotedar, 2004). It provides the essential and non-essential amino acids which are required for muscle formation and enzymatic function, on one hand, and also provides energy for maintenance, on the other hand (Yang et al., 2002). Excess protein in fish diet might be wasteful and make diet uselessly expensive (Ahmad, 2000).

    One of major factors which limit economic success in any commercial farming of species is food requirement. As important dietary stuff, protein consisted of animals directly influences on the formulation of diets and therefore affects production’s cost. A wide range of feeding habits from carnivorous to herbivorous animals has been suggested as one possible reason for the wide range in protein requirements among fish species. As the main and most expensive component of the diet, protein draws greater attention in nutrition requirement studies.

    Protein (most expensive macronutrient) requirement for fish fry is high and ranges from 35% to 56% (Jauncy & Ross, 1982). Furthermore, dietary protein requirements decreased with the development size and age of fish (El-Sayed & Teshima, 1991). Based on various studies general conclusion is made that tilapia fry of size <1 g requires diet with 35-50% protein, while 1-5 g fish requires diet with 30-40% protein and 5-25 g fish requires diet with 25-35% protein (Balarin & Haller, 1982).

    Fry feed generally contains higher level of protein because the latter and energy requirements are higher in the early stages of life. Protein content of fry feed for tilapia farming has not been standardized yet although some farms use food stuff having 40% protein. So, it is essential to recommend the appropriate protein level of fry feed for economic production of healthy fry and maximize its lifespan as well.

    However, the present study has been undertaken to conduct experimentation with different protein level diets viz. 21%, 25%, 32% 37% and 45% protein of fry feed to determine growth performance and survival rate of tilapia fry at different protein levels.

    The main objective of this trial was to determine the optimum protein level which is necessary for optimum growth of monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under re-circulating system.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Abdoulaye Loum, Mariama Sagne, Jean Fall, Diegane Ndong, Malick Diouf, Alassane Sarr, Omar Thiom Thiaw

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:42 pm on July 24, 2013 Permalink  

    Effect Of Microwave Radiation On The Retina Of Mice Embryos 

    Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together through the space. Microwaves are a subset of radiowaves which have frequencies between 3 kHz- 300GHz. It constitutes part of the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Mobile telephony has developed rapidly over the past ten years. It is now a part of the basic equipment of modern life and over 1.3 billion phones are in use worldwide. The first mobile phone system was analog and used frequencies from 450 and up to 900 MHz. Now the digital system, is operated at somewhat higher frequencies (1800-1900 MHz) and it uses different modulating. Over the last few years, concerns about health effects caused by exposure to the microwaves emitted by mobile telephones and base stations have increased as becoming a major societal issue in some countries, or at least among part of the population.

    Berman et al. (1981) found no significant differences in the number of alive, dead or total fetuses and in the incidences of external, visceral, or skeletal anomalies between control and experimental fetuses maternally exposed to microwave at power density 28 mW/cm2 for 100 minutes daily from the 6th day to the 15th day of pregnancy. Nawrot et al. (1981) noted a reduction in fetal weight in CD-1 mice exposed to 30mW/cm2of electromagnetic waves during days 1-6 of gestation. Exposure of pregnant mice to a power density of 30mW/cm2from the 6th day to the 15th day of gestation resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of malformed fetuses, predominantly with cleft palate. Lary et al. (1982) stated that high-intensity 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) caused a significant incidence of fetal malformations throughout the post implantation period (days7 through 15). It also caused a low but significant incidence of pre-implantation malformations. Fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced in all post-implantation exposure groups but were not affected by pre-implantation exposure. The incidence of dead or resorbed fetuses was significantly increased in rats irradiated on days 7 or 9ofpregnancy.Marcickiewiczetal. (1986)statedthatthepregnantSwissmiceirradiationof 2 hours daily on days 1-8 of gestation with non-thermal intensity (1 or 10 mW/cm2) at 2450 MHz microwave did not lead to resorption or detectable malformations; however, the body massof19-day-fetuseswassignificantlylowerthanthatofthe control.Ontheotherhand,the microwave hyperthermia (40 mW/cm2) at the same conditions led to an increased number of resorptions (about 25%) compared to control (2%). O’Conner (1999) stated that the most remarkable observation at intrauterine exposure to radiofrequency (RF) at high exposure was a decrease in fetal mass.

    Bornhausen and Cheingraber (2000) found that there was no effect on offspring behavior performance of Wister rats maternally exposed continuously during pregnancy to a low-level electromagnetic field (900 MHz) that approximated the highest legal exposure of normal population to the radiation of base antennas of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) digital cell-phone. Lahijani and Ghafoori (2000) exposed freshly fertilized chicken eggs to 50Hz during the first 24hours of post laying incubation. All EMF-exposed groups showed an increase in the percentage of developmental anomalies compared to the control. Also, the investigation showed significant differences in the measurements of body weight, length of crown to rump, heart and liver. Grigor’ev (2003) exposed the chicken embryos to electromagnetic field (EMF) from global system for mobile (GSM) during the embryonic development (21 days). The author found that the embryo mortality rate in the incubation period increased to 75% (versus 16% in the control group).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Fawzy I. Amer, Hamza A. El Shabaka, Iman Zakaria, Hend A. Mohammed

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

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