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  • admin 3:34 pm on July 24, 2013 Permalink  

    Strategy Implementation Traceability of Breeding Shrimp Business in Indonesia 

    Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) is a ‘native shrimp’ Indonesia. Activities: arrest broodstock, captive breeding to produce seed until shrimp are cultured in Indonesia basically produce shrimp first derivative or F1. Broodstock tiger shrimp in Indonesia has been standardized in SNI 01-6142-2006 namely Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798 (Anonymous, 2008. Nurdjana, 2008).

    Vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), comes from the waters of the Pacific Ocean in the Hawaiian Islands and the West coast of America; making broodstock go to Indonesia is the first derivative of F1 from crosses or natural broodstock at the hatchery on the islands of Hawaii. Therefore, vannamei shrimp cultivated in Indonesia as F1 is essentially a second-generation seed or F2.

    Regulation of the Minister of Marine and Fisheries Phone PER.03/MEN/2005 about quarantine measures by third parties; articles 2, 3 and 4 require careful monitoring. Articles 6, 7 and 8 as a form of action that can be taken by the Government with no third-party oversight of technical rules. In addition, the Minister of Marine and Fisheries Number PER.15/MEN/2011 on Quality Control and Safety of Fishery The Log into the Territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Article 6 (paragraph 2) – there is no requirement of integrity pact as a form of full responsibility importer which states that: if the imported fish is detected as carriers of disease or potentially harmful to the spread of disease will be immediately destroyed instantly, including all losses are borne by the importer. There is also no form of supervision by an independent party to quarantine the fish (which comes from imports) is. Whereas the broodstock in the preparation of the document traceability from sea to table is upstream of all the problems in the shrimp business in Indonesia.

    Businesses seeding states that that there is no regulation or standard of Good Breeding Practices Operaional procedure is technically capable of guaranteeing free treatment of antibiotics. Hatchery since 2004 have begun to consciously change the way seed movement by abandoning the use of antibiotics and to promote the use of probiotics.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Angky Soedrijanto, Martani Huseini, Margono Setiawan, Eddy Suprayitno

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 7:40 pm on July 22, 2013 Permalink  

    Effect of Exogenous Phytase on the Phosphorus Balance of Lactating Cows Fed A Corn Based Diet 

    In the past, dairy cows were often fed diets containing P levels markedly higher than the recommendations for P supply. The most common explanation for this oversupply is the perception that high-P diets improve reproductive performance. In addition, the recommendations for adequate P supply differ from nation to nation (CVB, 2005; GfE, 2001; INRA, 2002; NRC, 2001; Schlegel, 2011). Consequential the proportion of excreted P, which is not used to meet the requirements of the cow, increases. Moreover, natural P sources used as mineral feedstuffs become more and more limited in the future (Rodehutscord, 2008).

    Therefore, it remains a challenge for animal nutrition to reduce the dietary P supply while meeting the requirement at the same time. One way to increase the P-absorption and to reduce faecal P is the supply of exogenous phytase to the diets (Knowlton et al., 2007). The enzyme phytase has a relevant impact in the reduction of P-excretion by excrements from monogastrics. Due to its ability to cleave phosphate from its binding to the inositol ring, phytase supply more P for absorption in the small intestine (Guyton et al., 2003). In ruminants, phytase is secreted intracellular by ruminal bacteria (Yanke et al., 1998) and phytate hydrolysis also occurs in the lower gastrointestinal tract (small intestine with duodenum, jejunum, ileum) of ruminants. Thus the total tract hydrolysis of phytate is nearly complete (Brask-Pedersen et al., 2013). However, for P to be absorbed from the small intestine, the phytate hydrolysis must occur in the rumen. Using in vitro ruminal techniques Morse et al. (1992) and Brask-Pedersen et al. (2011) found out that the effect of exogenous phytase is closely related to the composition of the feedstuff, the pH-value level, the kind of phytase and the time of incubation. Additionally, Brask-Pedersen et al. (2011) observed that the supply of exogenous phytase in vitro can influence the P-utilization positively. These results are sustained by Garikipati and Kincaid (2004), who figured out a positive effect of the influence of exogenous phytase in dairy cows. However, data regarding the intake of P and the use of exogenous phytase are inadequate. Kincaid et al. (2005) tested the effects of grain source and exogenous phytase supplementation on the digestibility of P and concluded that exogenous phytase could have an influence on the faecal P-excretion of dairy cows.

    Although the main part of phytase activity in the rumen is of bacterial origin (Yanke et al., 1998), phytin hydrolysis might also be caused by intrinsic phytase contained in the diet, whereby however only some cereals and their by-products show phytase activities of more than 100 units/kg (Eeckhout & De Paepe, 1994). The phytase activity in corn is below the detection limit (Zimmermann et al., 2002). According to current knowledge, there is no certain way to identify the quantitative influence of plant phytase on ruminal phytate hydrolysis (Kincaid & Rodehutscord, 2005). Experiments in a semi-continuous culture system by Godoy and Meschy (1999) with P of inorganic and organic origin suggest that in some situations the ruminal phytase activity does not hydrolyze all dietary phytate. Time of incubation of feed in the gastro intestinal tract is getting shorter in high lactating cows, because the feed intake increases with the increasing performance. Based on this, the passage rate increases and with this the time of P-hydrolyses gets even lower (Garikipati & Kincaid, 2004).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Laura Winter, Ulrich Meyer, Markus Spolders, Liane Hüther, Peter Lebzien, Sven Dänicke

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:52 pm on July 19, 2013 Permalink  

    Association of Hand Length with Height in Nigerian School Children 

    Estimation of the body size such as height and weight are required for assessment of growth, nutritional status, calculating body surface area and predicting pulmonary function of children (Gauld et al., 2004; Amirsheybani et al., 2000). Measurement of height is important for determination of basic energy requirement, standardization, and measures of physical capacity and for adjusting drug dosages (Jalzem and Gledhill, 1993). However in some situations the exact height cannot be determined directly because the patient is unable to stand as a result of neuromuscular weakness, deformities of axial skeleton such as kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, lost of lower limbs and in patients who have undergone amputations (Duyar and Pelin, 2003; Duyar et al., 2006). In such patients, height does not reflect the body size and the use of height measurements in prediction equation is likely to produce error. For example in scoliosis patients, the predicted spirometric values were underestimated when the measured body was used and under such circumstances, an estimate of height has to be computed based on another body parameters (Amirsheybani et al., 2001; De Mendonca, 2000).

    The hand length was found to be the most reliable alternative and the hand can be used as a basis for estimating age-related loss in height. The length of the body while alive is one of the key parameters established in the course of identification of unknown skeletal remains (Hauser et al., 2005; Auberch and Ruff, 2004). Stature provides insight into various features of a population including nutritional health and genetics. Stature is considered as one of the parameters for personal identification (Krishan and Sharma, 2007; Anitie, 2007).

    The most important applications of anthropology at field level include biological anthropology, epidemiology, clinical application and in metabolic research (Bidmos, 2006; Bidmos, 2009). The hand length could be used to predict body weight status and body surface area independent of the sex of the individual (Bidmos, 2009). Correlation between hand length and foot length has also been studied and that if the hand length is known, the foot length can be predicted and vice-versa. Hand length has been shown to be a reliable and precise means in predicting the height of an individual (Gauld and Rakhir, 1996; Ebites et al., 2000).

    In forensic investigations, the dimensions of the hand and foot have been used in the determination of sex, age, stature of an individual. Stature reconstruction is important as it provides forensic anthropological estimation of the height of a person in the living state which plays a vital role in the identification of individual remains (Bhatnagar et al., 1984; Boldsen, 1984). Intact long limb bones have been used in the derivation of regression equations for stature assessment in different population groups. Anthropologist observes and compared the relation between body and segments to highlight variations between and within groups. Determination of stature is a major concern in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology (Fessler et al., 2005). The bone area values at different sites strongly correlates to muscle strength and also correlate to body size; height, weight, lean mass, fat mass and body mass index (BMI) (Fessler et al, 2005). It is commonly accepted that standards for skeletal identification vary among different populations and the standard for one population may not be used for another (Thakur and Rai, 1987; Iscan, 1988).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Augustine OSELOKA Ibegbu, Eniola Tosin David, Willson Oliver Hamman, Uduak Emmanuel Umana, Sunday Abraham Musa

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:03 pm on July 18, 2013 Permalink  

    Protein Fractions of Pearl Millet Submitted to Different Nitrogen Doses and Cutting Ages 

    Brazilian livestock breeding is closely linked to exploitation of natural and cultivated pastures, so high productivity of forage grasses is one of the main factors responsible for the success of this activity. Annual grasses that mature in the hot season, such as millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.), are important elements in grazing systems that aim to obtain high forage yield and animal productivity in relation to area. According to Moojen et al. (1999), this species adapts well to the climate conditions in the Midwest region of Brazil and is able to produce a large quantity of good-quality forage in a short time. Due to the variability among genotypes, the choice of cultivar is an important decision and should consider genetic factors of the plant and regional edaphoclimatic factors. Millet has excellent nutritional value, good palatability and digestibility and is nontoxic to animals at all growing stages. Benedetti (1999) evaluated millet grown in a broadcast seeding system and measured average crude protein (CP) concentrations between 8.0 and 9.2% after 30 days of growth, while at the end of the pasture cycle the levels varied from 3.2 to 4.6%, which limited consumption.

    According to Corsi (1995), nitrogen is the main component of the protoplasm after water. It acts in various metabolic processes, composing part of the hormones, and directly affects the photosynthesis process through its presence in the chlorophyll molecule. The application of N on forage plants can stimulate production of mass, and if there are no limitations due to production factors and lack of other nutrients, the increments can be very high (Silva et al., 2008). Kollet et al. (2006) evaluated the qualitative characteristics of pearl millet cultivars at three cutting ages: 35, 42 and 49 days, with application of 20 kg ha-1 of N, incorporated in the soil before planting, plus side dressing of 60 kg.ha-1 applied when the plants reached 10 cm in height, measuring CP values of 13.9 to 20.6%.Advances in the knowledge of ruminant nutrition, especially in the past decade, have enabled the development of new feeding systems and methods of assessing livestock feed tomaximize use of forage plants. The supply of ruminants’ nutritional needs, according to Mello and Norberg (2004), depends on the energy content of the diet that can be utilized by the ruminal microorganisms or be absorbed from the ruminal escape in other compartments of the digestive tract. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a system that considers the dynamics of ruminal fermentation and potential loss of nitrogen, as ammonia, in the evaluation of animal feeds (Sniffen et al., 1992), with the objective of adjusting ruminal digestion of carbohydrates and proteins to increase microbial production, reduce losses of N and estimate the ruminal escape of nutrients (Balsalobre et al., 2003). Although there have been numerous studies of the chemical composition of the forage grasses predominant in Brazil, there is little information available regarding their nutritive value, especially related to the fractionation of nutrients in function of the management conditions with use of nitrogen fertilizer.

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize and identify the protein fractions contained in two pearl millet cultivars (ADR-300 and BN-1) submitted to different N doses and cutting ages, under the conditions in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás state, Brazil.


    For full text: click here

    (Author: Oscar L. Faria Júnior, Aldi F. de S. França, Alzira G. da Silva-Pause, Eliane S. Miyagi, Hugo J. M. C. Peron, Emmanuel Arnhold, Alessandra G. Mascarenhas, Daniel S. Corrêa

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:37 pm on July 17, 2013 Permalink  

    Hematological Changes in an Ovine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction 

    Today, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the foremost cause of mortality in many countries around the world. When studying MI in large mammals, pigs or sheep are usually used. We chose sheep because, unlike pigs, whose cardiomyocytes have up to 32 nuclei, ovine cardiomyocytes have only 1–4 nuclei, thus being more similar to the human (Adler et al., 1996). In addition, pigs are more prone to develop irreversible ventricular fibrillation than sheep, this leading to higher mortality. A detailed guide with a practical, safe and reliable for induction of MI in ovine models by ligating the main diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery has been reported previously (Kim et al., 2005; Rabbani et al., 2008).

    Many studies have been published for hematologic and biochemical analysis in relation to acute MI in human (Friedman et al., 1974; Jan et al., 1975; Zalokar et al., 1981; Tahnk-Johnson and Sharkey, 1993; Kobayashi et al., 2001), however, few studies for the observation of alterations in these indices from acute MI has been accomplished (Dodds et al., 1980; Nikolaidis et al., 2003; Aronson et al., 2007). The present study was designed to explore the relationship between the extent of myocardial injury following coronary ligation and the degree of hemodynamic changes in sheep within 1 week after LAD ligation.

    All procedures were approved by the Laboratory Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Tehran, and performed in accordance with the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH publication 85-23, revised 1996). Ten healthy, non-obese, adult, male sheep weighing 30-35 kg were randomly divided into two groups (n=5 each) including Group І (without MI or sham-operated control group) and Group ІІ (with MI) with age- and sex-matched ones. During the study, the animals had free access to water and were fed with a mixed diet of hay and sheep pellets.

    All animals were housed for 1 week in the animal house so they would be adapted to the environment. They were examined by a veterinarian and a cardiologist, clinically, and some were excluded from the study if any serious morbidity was detected. Animals in group II were subjected to coronary artery ligation after lateral thoracotomy. Surgical procedures were performed under general anesthesia by intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) and electrocardiographic monitoring (Kim et al., 2005; Rabbani et al., 2008). Acute MI was inducted by ligating the second diagonal branch of the LAD, as described previously by Rabbani et al. (2008).

    This method has been documented as a practical, reliable and safe ovine model of inducing MI in paraclinical investigations. After surgical preparation/drape, a 15- to 20-cm-long left lateral thoracotomy incision was carried out through the fourth intercostals space. After the pericardium was opened, the coronary anatomy was inspected. The second diagonal branch of LAD coronary artery was ligated using a curved round needle and 6-0 prolene suture at a point approximately 40% distant from its base. Occlusion of the coronary artery was confirmed by the cyanotic appearance of the ischemic area (Fig.1), and ventricular hypokinesia plus ST-segment changes on electrocardiography (ECG).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi, Elaheh Pishgahzadeh

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 5:23 pm on July 16, 2013 Permalink  

    Promising Antifungal Effect of Rice (Oryza sativa L.), Oat (Avena sativa L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Extracts 

    The grains contamination is inevitable and many biotic and abiotic factors affect this. Many
    species are toxigenic and among them the Aspergillus and Fusarium are also phytopathogenic,
    causing diseases that are difficult to control in cereal crops (Dambolena et al., 2012; Lee et al.,
    2007). The knowledge about natural resistence against specific fungal genus and its location
    in the vegetable might be a strategic way to control the contamination problem (Armando et
    al., 2013).

    Some researchers have attempted to find these natural compounds products with
    antifungal effects for proper that might be recovery from wastes as interesting possibility, for
    economic and environment benefits (Pagnussatt et al., 2012b; Viuda-Martos et al., 2008).
    Then, simple tools for identify this properties are very useful to technology development
    preventing crops environment and human health damage (Zao et al., 2010; Del Río et al.,

    Among the compounds naturally present in plants tissues, some inhibit the microbial activity,
    such as alpha-amylase inhibitors which can alter fungal growth (Pagnussatt et al., 2012a;
    Pagnussatt et al., 2011a; Figueira et al., 2003). Others proteic compounds are being related to
    the expression of the biosynthesis regulatory gene, or even block the activity of the enzyme in
    the microorganism or insects metabolism (Lee et al., 2007; Kadozawa et al., 2002).

    The screening of these natural antifungal compounds is the first step to select a variety but
    recovery them from cereal wastes (Velutti et al., 2004), allowing a sustainable agriculture and
    promoting environmental quality is not a frequent evaluation. However, this would be a
    promising alternative to limit the fungal contamination.

    The antimicrobial activity can be determined by in vitro or application tests. In the screening
    method, the crude compounds under study are applied directly on the product and provide
    preliminary information about its defense potential. In other type the antimicrobial agent is
    applied directly in a culture media and its effect is evaluated by hyphae inhibition or chemical
    fungal constituent’s production (Del Río et al., 2003).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt, Cristiana Costa Bretanha, Larine Kupski, Jaqueline Garda-Buffon, Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 6:33 pm on July 15, 2013 Permalink  

    Defining a Critical Mass Threshold for Agricultural Support Services 

    The structure of the American agriculture is decidedly changed from that of the previous century. Mechanization and other technological advances have wildly increased the productivity of industrialized operations at the national scale. With downward pressure on commodity prices, incomes to small and medium sized farmers have eroded. Many contemporary family farms now depend on non-farm income to maintain their livelihoods.

    This decline in the economic viability of lower-intensity agriculture is destabilizing many rural communities. Where small farmers once purchased inputs from local suppliers and sold their products in local or regional markets, the vertical integration of industrial operations are closing off important linkages in the agricultural value chain. With dwindling access to critical products and services, smaller farms face increasing costs of production, coupled with suppressed commodity prices, endangering their long-term financial stability.

    This paper poses the hypothesis that there is a threshold, or point of critical mass, in agricultural production, below which a variety of businesses, institutions, and supplier networks that provide support services to agriculture, may be expected to close down or relocate outside the region. Using four counties in western North Carolina as a case study, this paper examines the critical mass threshold for agricultural support services necessary to overcome structural barriers and sustain agriculture in this rural region.

    The research provides local policy makers with evidence for and against the existence of a critical mass threshold and highlights which support service categories may be most at-risk. These techniques, and the challenges faced by western North Carolina, are generalizable to other rural regions, especially those in Appalachia and other mountainous regions.

    The region, in this context, includes the counties of Buncombe, Henderson, Madison, and Transylvania in the western mountains of North Carolina. In western North Carolina, farms are of smaller than average size and face constraints of geography and climate. Steep ridges and narrow valley bottoms limit the cultivatable land area. As a result, many farms achieve subsistence through diversified production; taking advantage of not only the fertile valley floor, but also the grassy slopes for livestock, and timber harvesting on the wooded ridge tops.

    In the past, the mountainous terrain greatly restricted farmers’ access to global markets. With the introduction of the railroad in the 1800’s, and development of the Interstate Highways in the late 1950’s and 60’s, the region is now strategically well situated for the distribution of goods to the highly competitive markets of the Northeast and South. Unfortunately, it appears that the region’s limited capacity to produce high volumes of agricultural goods restrict its ability to capitalize on this comparative advantage.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Aaron J. Nousaine, G. Jason Jolley

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 7:48 pm on July 12, 2013 Permalink  

    Total Factor Productivity and the Bio Economy Effects 

    In Latin America the Bio Economy is a new perception that is being examined by a group of colleagues with the issue “The Bio Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Towards a socio economic research agenda” (Trigo, 2011).During the past three decades, the Bio Economic side effect of economic activities has received increasing attention in public debate where the environmental issues have been highlighting this debate (Hoang and Coelli, 2009).

    This paper intent to contribute to the efforts that other authors have been made to integrate Bio Economy concerns into traditional technical and socio economic performance measure, as well as made it in environmental concerns (Zúniga: 2011; Scheel, 2001; Tyteca, 1996).

    Generally, these environmental performance measures are derived by making adjustments to standard parametric and non-parametric efficiency and productivity analysis techniques (Coelli, et al. 2007). The traditional approach that the majority of these studies have taken is that the environmental effect is modeled as either a bad output or an environmentally detrimental input in production models (e.g. Ball, et al. 1994; Färe, et al. 1989; Reinhard, et al. 2000; Shaik and Perrin 2001; Tyteca 1997). These methods, however, face two criticisms. First, they fail to allow for both increasing desirable output and reducing undesirable output at the same time (Chung, et al. 1997). Secondly, Coelli, et al. (2007) shows that these methods often do not satisfy the materials balances condition.

    Chung, et al. (1997) proposed the use of a directional distance function which allows for simultaneous expansion of desirable output and contraction of undesirable output. While thismethod overcomes the first criticism, this approach also fails to satisfy the materials balancecondition, which we show later in this paper.

    Recently, Coelli, et al. (2007) suggested the use of an alternative modeling approach that usesthe materials balance condition in deriving an environmental efficiency measure. Theyconsider the situation where the environmental pollution is caused by the balance of nutrients, equal to the difference between nutrients in inputs and nutrients in outputs. In order to reducepollution, one could reduce the nutrients balance by, for example, reducing the nutrient amountcontained in the input vector. Compared with the traditional approach, this method does notinvolve the introduction of any extra variables into the production model and satisfies thematerials balance condition.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Carlos Alberto Zuniga Gonzalez

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:46 pm on July 11, 2013 Permalink  

    Heritability Studies of Fruit Related Traits in Solanum Lycopersicum L. Germplasm 

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is relatively a new addition to the world food crops, used in various forms both fresh and processed. Although tomato does not rank high in terms of caloric value, by virtue of volume consumed in its various forms such as cooked, salad, soup, preserves, pickles, ketchup sauces and many other products, it contributes substantially to dietary intake of vitamin A, B, C and essential minerals (Tigchelaar, 1986). Tomato being a tender perennial crop, it is susceptible to both frost as well as high temperature, and thus it is grown under varying environmental conditions. Since 1961, tomato production in the world has increased 291%, and during the year 2002 production reached 108 million metric tons. The share of Pakistan during 2005-06 in tomato production was 4965.35 tones, fresh or chilled worth US$ 0.829 million (Anonymous, 2006).

    In Pakistan, very little efforts have been made for improving vegetable crops including tomato, because of their secondary importance in the crop husbandry (Shokat et al., 2011). Consequently, very few local varieties of tomato are available for cultivation and most of them are selections from the introduced germplasm. Furthermore, the available varieties are poor in quality traits, and therefore, are unable to get consumer’s attraction. In Pakistan tomato is grown on an area of 44460 hectare with annual production of 491370 tones (Anonymous, 2011). Amongst the several reasons of low production of tomato the two reasons appears to be reasonable, firstly locally developed varieties are not available and secondly the non-existence of local tomato seed industry. Almost the total seed supply of tomato requirement is fulfilled through import of hybrid seed, and during 2005-06 Pakistan imported 72.75 tones of tomato seeds worth 2.09 million US$ (Anonymous, 2006) while it was increased significantly to US$ 5.1 million in 2009 (Anonymous, 2011).

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Sajid Shokat, Faqir Muhammad Azhar, Qumer Iqbal, Ghulam Nabi, Muhammad Muzaffar Raza, Muhammad Saleem

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

  • admin 3:34 pm on July 10, 2013 Permalink  

    Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Aizawl and Mamit Districts of Mizoram 

    State of Mizoram is located in the north east corner of India of which the areas of the districts under study lies between 210 56’ N-230 E latitude and 920 16’-930 26’N longitude, descending in the south east extremity of North eastern region with the formation of sandwich between Myanmar in the east and Bangladesh in the West by sharing an international boundary of 585 kilo meters with these two countries Remaining part of the state is bounded with the state of Tripura in the West and Assam in the north partially the north eastern boundary of the state is also surrounded by Manipur. The state is divided into 8 districts out of which Aizawl and Mamit covered under studies are located in the northeastern part of the state.

    Information on is available on the use of traditionally used medicines and their distribution in the areas with traditional use of commercially important medicinal plants suitable for developing traditional knowledge for socio- economic upliftment. Information on the medicinal wealth and various aspects of folk lore medicines used by the natives of Mizoram is sufficiently available (Mahati, 1994; Lalramnghinglova, 1996; 1999; Singh et al. 2002; Lalfakzuahla et al., 2007; Rai & Lalramnghinglova, 2010a, b, c). Medico botanical exploration of districts of Kolasib, Aizawl, and Chaphai had also been made (Rama Shankar, 2009).

    However, the details of the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of Aizawl and Mamit districts are insufficiently known Accordingly, the attempt on medico ethno botanical aspects of Aizawl and Mamit districts have been taken under study where in the medicinal plants belonging to established system of medicine i. e. Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha were used by the traditional folk healers in a crude single or combination of drugs for the cure of different diseases as well as methodology of use in comparison to already reported disease and methodology. In general, traditional healers use crude drug part either in fresh juice or decoction for healing the ailments. In case of joint pains, headache or other types of pain, poultice or paste of fresh plant is externally used. During the study about 37 such medicinal plants used by traditional healers along with their healing practices and methodology from the districts under study have been recorded and discussed in this paper.

    For full text: click here

    (Author: Rama Shankar, M.S. Rawat

    Published by Macrothink Institute)

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